The plan is to annex 8,000 acres south of the city.
Elk Grove Mayor Gary Davis says the city wants more room to add employers.
"We have 160,000 residents and a little less than 30,000 jobs. That imbalance is not healthy, it's not sustainable and we're working hard to fix it."
Right now, much of the land is used for agriculture. Some birds use it as habitat too.
Opponents of the Elk Grove proposal say developing the land would hurt wildlife and the environment.
Sean Wirth is with the Environmental Council of Sacramento.
"If it gets through, it'll be nearly impossible if not impossible to acquire any land in that area for habitat because it'll be so much value with the specter of increased property values."
The plan is scheduled to be heard by the Sacramento County LAFCO, Local Agency Formation Commission, a panel of four elected officials and one member of the public.